Directed evolution is a reliable method for protein engineering and as a tool for investigating structure/function relationships. A key for a successful directed evolution experiment is oftentimes the screen. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is powerful high-throughput screening approach to isolate and identify mutants from large protein libraries. FACS has been successful in isolating proteins with improved or altered binding affinity. However, FACS screening for mutants with enhanced catalytic activity has been met with limited success. This review focuses on the FACS screening of protein libraries for enzymatic activity.