Infections caused by microbial proliferation are one of the common issues and serious threats to the medical care, and they usually result in disease spread. Therefore, it is a significant issue for developing the antiinfective biomaterials to control this problem, according to the specific clinical application. Meanwhile, all their properties, the best anti-infective performance, the safe biocompatibility and the appropriate tissue interactions must be conformed to each other. At present, technologies are developing novel biomaterials and surfaces endowed with anti-infective properties, relying either on bactericidal or anti-biofilm activities. This review focuses on thoroughly summarizing numerous kinds of antibacterial biomaterials, including the antibacterial matrix biomaterials, antibacterial coatings and films, nanostructured materials and antibacterial fibers. Among these strategies, the utilization of bio-glass base and graphene base antibacterial matrix, and their effects on the antibiosis mechanism were emphatically discussed. Simultaneously, the effects and mechanisms of nano-coated metallic ions are also mentioned. Overall, there is a wealth of technical solutions to contrast the establishment of an implant infection. The lack of well-structured prospective multicenter clinical trials hinders the achievement of conclusive data on the efficacy and comparative performance of antibacterial biomaterials.