Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying the development of various neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen (RNSs) can overburden the ability of the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (uric acid, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and reduced glutathione), causing the development of oxidative stress, and consequently, impairing the neuronal system cells by means of oxidative damage to a variety of important biological molecules such as lipids, DNA and proteins. Considering the importance of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, the present review aims to address the main parameters evaluated in in vitro studies on oxidative stress in different models of neurodegenerative diseases.The literary review was conducted through Pubmed, Science Direct, LILACS, Scielo and Google using following keywords: oxidative stress, neurodegenerative diseases and parameters of oxidative stress. We selected articles published between 2002 and 2017.The in vitro evaluation of the oxidative stress related parameters has provided a preliminary view about the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). In this way, it has demonstrated the mechanism of action of ROS/RNSs in these diseases by direct or indirect detection through several experimental procedures in vitro.