Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35. Due to these tumors’ biological and clinical characteristics, they can serve as an appropriate system for studying molecular mechanisms associated with cisplatin-based treatment resistance. This review describes treatment resistance from clinical and molecular viewpoints. Cisplatin resistance is determined by various biological mechanisms, including the modulation of the DNA repair capacity of cancer cells, alterations to apoptotic cell death pathways, deregulation of gene expression pathways, epigenetic alterations and insufficient DNA binding. Moreover, this review describes TGCTs as a model system that enables the study of the cellular features of cancer stem cells in metastatic process and describes experimental models that can be used to study treatment resistance in TGCTs. All of the abovementioned aspects may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance and may help to identify promising new therapeutic targets.