Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of calcium dependent-zinc containing endopeptidases that play a pivotal role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. MMPs are also known to cleave non-matrix proteins, including cell surface receptors, TNF-α, angiotensin-II, growth factors, (especially transforming growth factor-β1, ΤGF- β1) plasminogen, endothelin and other bioactive molecules. The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit the activity of MMPs and decrease ECM degradation. Various patho-physiological conditions have been linked with the imbalance of ECM synthesis and degradation. Numerous studies have reported the significance of MMPs and TIMPs in the progression of kidney pathologies, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, renal cancer, and nephrolithiasis. Although dysregulated activity of MMPs could directly or indirectly lead to pathological morbidities, their contribution in disease progression is still understated. Specifically, MMP activity in the kidneys and it's relation to kidney diseases has been the subject of a limited number of investigations. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to provide an updated insight of the involvement of MMPs and TIMPs in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and degenerative kidney disorders.