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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

SLN- and NLC-Encapsulating Antifungal Agents: Skin Drug Delivery and their Unexplored Potential for Treating Onychomycosis

Author(s): Tais Gratieri, Anna Paula Krawczyk-Santos, Priscila Bianca Rodrigues da Rocha, Marcilio Cunha–Filho, Guilherme Martins Gelfuso, Ricardo Neves Marreto and Stephania Fleury Taveira*

Volume 23, Issue 43, 2017

Page: [6684 - 6695] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666171115112745

Price: $65


Background: Lipid nanoparticles have been extensively studied for drug delivery of antifungal drugs, especially for dermatophytosis treatments. They can accumulate in skin appendages and release drugs in a controlled manner and also increase skin moisture, due to the formation of an occlusive film. Since moisture heavily influences nail and skin permeability, these systems seem to pose great potential for antifungal drug delivery.

Methods: We therefore compare skin and nail physiopathological structure and discuss the potential use of lipid nanoparticles in managing skin and nail mycoses, highlighting their unexplored use in onychomycosis.

Results: Structural features become particularly relevant when treating local skin/nail disorders. Nail plate represents the most resistant barrier to the penetration of molecules. In recent years, at least 55 researches have been reported about lipid nanoparticles and, antifungal drugs. They have focused on production methods and nanoparticle ingredients influence on entrapment efficiency, fungal activity in vitro, stability, and drug release. Lipid nanoparticles such as SLN and NLC have shown great results in permeating the skin. Currently, however, there is just one study published using NLC applied directly to the nail plate. NLC containing voriconazole had a noteworthy impact on the penetration depth of a nanoencapsulated drug, which allowed its deeper penetration into porcine hooves than the unloaded drug.

Conclusion: Evidence of the success of SLN and NLC in achieving high encapsulation efficiencies of antifungals and promoting cutaneous delivery indicates the potential of the systems in enhancing nail hydration and drug penetration into the nail plate.

Keywords: Antifungal drugs, lipid nanoparticles, nail drug delivery, onychomycosis, skin drug delivery, skin permeation and ungual permeation.

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