Background: Recent studies reported that Fat Mass and Obesity-associated gene (FTO) single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs), especially rs9939609, have association with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, many researches confirmed that leptin, an adipocytokine, is related to the obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in patients who suffered from Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM).
Objective: In this study, the correlation of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and leptin level was investigated in the obese women who suffered from T2DM.
Methods: In case-control study, metabolic and anthropometric parameters, and leptin level of 38 obese diabetic and 38 non-diabetic women were investigated. Genotyping of rs9939609 FTO gene was completed by sequencing of PCR amplicons for all cases.
Results: According to the results, FBS, age, HbA1c, insulin level, HOMA index and leptin level showed statistically significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic women (P < 0.05). Based on the adjusting of FTO rs9939609 SNP with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, no significant difference was found between the three genotypes (AA, TA and TT) in non-diabetic women (P > 0.05). But, in the diabetic group, only TC had significant difference and mean of TC was higher in mutant genotypes (AA and TA) than wild genotype (TT). Also, BMI, insulin, LDL and HDL showed negative correlation with leptin level in both groups but these correlations were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The results of our study (with little sample size) showed that the mean of leptin level in diabetic women was lower than non-diabetic women (significant difference). However, the level of leptin was not statistically significant between three genotypes, and odds ratio of rs9939609 was higher in diabetic women in comparison with non-diabetic women.