Prostate cancer significantly affects the overall morbidity and mortality of malignant tumours in highly developed countries. Important risk factors include family predisposition and regional, racial and dietary determinants. The scientific literature contains a great deal of data on the role of calcium and dairy products in general in the process of neoplastic transformation of the prostate. This is most likely linked to the fact that changes in the concentration of calcium ions control such varied life processes as secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters, the level of cyclic nucleotides, and cell growth, division and differentiation. Research is conducted to demonstrate that disorders of cell cycle control due to differences in calcium ion concentrations may be crucial for the development and prevention of cancer.
Disturbances of calcium homeostasis in the body can be caused by various mechanisms, such as excessive calcium intake in the diet, vitamin D deficiency, structural and functional changes in vitamin D receptor (VDR), Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR), and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH-1-R), changes in calcium ion channels, phosphate metabolism disorders (phosphatonin and the Klotho protein), changes in the level of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and others.
The article presents data on the mechanisms maintaining calcium homeostasis at the molecular level and genetic aspects playing a role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.
The data cited on the occurrence of abnormal mechanisms of calcium metabolism in prostate cancer suggest the need for individualized intake of this element in the diet, especially in the case of patients with a family history of PCa.