Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder involving defects in epidermal barrier function and abnormal immune response to environmental stimuli. Standard treatment of AD involves topical application of emollients and anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids.
Objective: Because of the barrier function defects in AD skin, the topical drug delivery can lead to systemic drug absorption, thereby eliciting systemic complications. Nanoparticles as the carriers used for cutaneous drug delivery provide some benefits over conventional formulations, including enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, controlled drug release, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. In recent years, the concept of using nanocarriers as vehicles for drug delivery to manage AD has attracted increasing attention. Polymeric nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, and liposomes are the most extensively studied nanocarriers for the treatment of AD. In this review, we highlight the recent progress on the development of nanosystems for AD treatment.
Method: We systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for AD treatment. Different AD animal models for evaluating the efficacy of the therapeutic nanoparticles are described herein.
Results: The discrepancy of the nanoparticle skin absorption between healthy skin and AD skin is also discussed.
Conclusion: This review aimed to summarize the evidence for the therapeutic advantages of nanoparticles over the conventional AD therapy.