Background: This study investigates fatty acids and sterol contents of some seeds used in Asian nutrition culture to prepare functional beverages, foods or fatty acids and sterols source.
Objective: Current study presents an overview about some seeds as a valuable source for fatty acids and sterols extraction.
Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to quantify fatty acids and sterol contents and compare them to standard components. Different ash values, free amino acids, and soluble sugars were investigated. High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was employed to detect the components. Inter- and intra-day variations, linearity of the calibration curves, and the CV of accuracy for fatty acids and sterols were generally within the acceptable ranges.
Results: The total oil content of the seeds ranged from 0.04% to 7.39%, with blue skullcap seed yielding the highest percentage of oil. The stigmasterol and β-sitosterol content of the oils ranged from 1.47 ± 0.03mg/100 g (canary grass seed oil) to 26.20 ± 0.40 mg/100 g (quince seed oil). The major monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-oleic acid-was present in Quercus brantii oil, canary grass, and Crataegus aronia seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in Entada rheedii (60.65 ±0.84%), canary grass (64.43±0.17%), and Cydonia oblonga seed oil (63.55 ±1.30%). Linolenic acid was the major fatty acid in the oil of blue skullcap (90.24 ±0.17%) and Lallemantia royleana seeds (85.18 ± 3.79%).
Conclusion: Most of the detected seeds, especially Scutellaria lateriflora and L. royleana seeds were rich sources of phytosterols and essential fatty acids.