Introduction: At the end of 2014, almost 36.9 million people were living with HIV which has put the HIV infection in the list of major public health issues. Although almost thirty drugs are available for the treatment of HIV infection, challenges associated with delivery of these drugs still remain a major concern. These challenges can be divided into three categories 1) poor drug concentration at potential viral reservoirs, 2) poor oral bioavailability and 3) poor efficacy of existing anti-HIV drugs. Three major types of lipidic nannocarriers including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and microemulsion/nanoemulsion showed potential of targeting anti-HIV drugs to macrophages, brain and lymphatic system which then resulted in improved efficacy of the drug. These nanoformulations have also been explored for the delivery of anti-HIV drugs via various non-invasive routes like nasal, buccal and transdermal to improve the bioavailability.
Conclusion: This review therefore mainly focuses on the current HIV therapy and their limitations, use of lipid based nanocarriers including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and micremulsion/ nanoemulsion in the targeting and delivery of anti-HIV drugs Future perspective of development of these nanocarriers for delivery of anti-HIV drugs is also highlighted.