Background: The exposure of lung to noxious agents or gasses leads to injury, which further enhances repair mechanisms by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of lung stem cells. These cells could help preserve the anatomical structure and the function of the organ. Unfortunately in many lung diseases, 'this scenario' is changed and injury progresses despite repair mechanisms or conventional treatment.Objective: This review summarizes the research on lung stem cells by giving an overview of the biology, function, niches and signaling that play role in lung stem cells and further of the regeneration of the lung. It also highlights the most common lung pathologies thought to be a result of a defective remodeling and overviews the clinical trials having results or publications, which are performed on the field. Conclusion: Though not yet approved for clinical usage, the application of stem cell therapies shown to be safe and with minimal adverse effects could be an alternative treatment to many lung diseases giving a hope for the future of severely ill patients refractory to the current therapies.