Review Article

The Novelty of Bupropion As a Dopaminergic Antidepressant for the Treatment of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

Author(s): Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi*, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hizri Hatta and Kok Wei Wee

Volume 20, Issue 2, 2019

Page: [210 - 219] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170511145628

Price: $65


Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involves numerous challenges, which include a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delay the necessary assessment and proper treatment for this debilitating medical disorder. Adult ADHD is often misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the fact that this medical condition is being masked by the patients’ high level of intellectual achievement. As the ADHD in adult persists, it may end-up with impairment in the personal-social-occupational function in which the management becomes a great challenge. The treatment of ADHD can be optimized by using various drugs targets agents like norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), with or without psycho stimulants like methylphenidate, which is marketed as Ritalin. Bupropion, an NDRI has a novel effect on ADHD as the molecule exerts its effects by modulating the reward-pleasure mesolimbic dopaminergic system and at the same time regulates the elevating mood dimension of the noradrenergic neurotransmission. The role of Bupropion in the neural and psychopharmacological perspective treatment of ADHD was deliberated. The present review highlights the novel effects of Bupropion in ADHD treatment, together with the help of other successful bio-psycho-social measures. This may be of immense benefit to the psychiatrists for treating their patients.

Keywords: Bupropion, novel antidepressants, treatment, adult ADHD.

Graphical Abstract
American Psychiatric A. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
Lopez FA. ADHD: New pharmacological treatments on the horizon. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2006; 27(5): 410-6.
Davidson MA. ADHD in adults: a review of the literature. J Atten Disord 2007; 11(6): 628-41.
Achenbach TM, Howell CT, McConaughy SH, Stanger C. Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample of children and youth: I. Cross-informant syndromes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34(3): 336-47.
Hart EL, Lahey BB, Loeber R, Applegate B, Frick PJ. Developmental change in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys: a four-year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1995; 23(6): 729-49.
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Martelon M, Westerberg D, Spencer TJ. Presenting ADHD symptoms, subtypes, and comorbid disorders in clinically referred adults with ADHD. J Clin Psychiatry 2009; 70(11): 1557-62.
Greydanus DE, Pratt HD, Patel DR. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child, adolescent, and adult. Dis Mon 2007; 53(2): 70-131.
Murphy K, Barkley RA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: Comorbidities and adaptive impairments. Compr Psychiatry 1996; 37(6): 393-401.
Fayyad J, Sampson NA, Hwang I, et al. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016; 9(1): 47-65.
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annu Rev Med 2002; 53(1): 113-31.
Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Mick E, et al. Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study. Psychol Med 2006; 36(02): 167-79.
Wilens TE, Prince JB, Spencer T, et al. An open trial of bupropion for the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54(1): 9-16.
Heal DJ, Smith SL, Findling RL. ADHD: current and future therapeutics. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2012; 9: 361-90.
Maneeton N, Maneeton B, Srisurapanont M, Martin SD. Bupropion for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2011; 65(7): 611-7.
Reimherr FW, Hedges DW, Strong RE, Marchant BK, Williams ED. Bupropion SR in adults with ADHD: A short-term, placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2005; 1(3): 245-51.
Valeant Pharmaceutical International IS, MB R5G 1Z7, Canada. WELLBUTRIN XL® Prescribing Information 2014.
Foley KF, DeSanty KP, Kast RE. Bupropion: Pharmacology and therapeutic applications. Expert Rev Neurother 2006; 6(9): 1249-65.
Learned-Coughlin SM, Bergström M, Savitcheva I, Ascher J, Schmith VD, Långstrom B. In vivo activity of bupropion at the human dopamine transporter as measured by positron emission tomography. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54(8): 800-5.
Árgyelán M, Szabó Z, Kanyó B, et al. Dopamine transporter availability in medication free and in bupropion treated depression: A 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT study. J Affect Disord 2005; 89(1–3): 115-23.
Meyer JH, Goulding VS, Wilson AA, Hussey D, Christensen BK, Houle S. Bupropion occupancy of the dopamine transporter is low during clinical treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002; 163(1): 102-5.
Stahl SM, Pradko JF, Haight BR, Modell JG, Rockett CB, Learned-Coughlin S. A review of the neuropharmacology of bupropion, a dual norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 6(4): 159-66.
Fava M, Rush AJ, Thase ME, et al. 15 years of clinical experience with bupropion HCl: from bupropion to bupropion SR to bupropion XL. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 7(3): 106-13.
Biederman J, Spencer T. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a noradrenergic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46(9): 1234-42.
Banich MT, Burgess GC, Depue BE, et al. The neural basis of sustained and transient attentional control in young adults with ADHD. Neuropsychologia 2009; 47(14): 3095-104.
Prince J. Catecholamine dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An update. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008; 28(3): S39-45.
del Campo N, Chamberlain SR, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. The roles of dopamine and noradrenaline in the pathophysiology and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2011; 69(12): e145-57.
Stahl SM. Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basic and Practical Applications. 4th edition ed. United States of America Cambridge University Press, New York; 2013. 471 - 502 p.
Brennan AR, Arnsten AFT. Neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The influence of arousal on prefrontal cortical function. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1129: 236-45.
Lombroso PJ, Arnsten AF. Development of the cerebral cortex: XIV. Stress impairs prefrontal cortical function. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999; 38(2): 220-2.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn JH, et al. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16(11): 1147-54.
Scheres A, Milham MP, Knutson B, Castellanos FX. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61(5): 720-4.
Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Madras BK, et al. In Vivo neuroreceptor imaging in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on the dopamine transporter. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57(11): 1293-300.
Fanella M, Carnì M, Morano A, et al. Behavioral and movement disorders due to long-lasting myoclonic status epilepticus misdiagnosed as ADHD in a patient with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: Electroclinical findings and related hemodynamic changes. Clin EEG Neurosci 2016; 47(1): 56-60.
Stein MA. Medical mimics and differential diagnosis in adult ADHD. CNS Spectr 2008; 13(S15): 14-6.
Ushijima S. Differential diagnosis of ADHD from personality disorders. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 2014; 117(9): 775-9.
Marangoni C, De Chiara L, Faedda GL. Bipolar disorder and ADHD: comorbidity and diagnostic distinctions. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2015; 17(8): 1-9.
Kooij JJS. Adult ADHD: Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment. 3rd ed. Netherlands: Springer-Verlag London 2013.
Milioni ALV, Chaim TM, Cavallet M, et al. High IQ may “mask” the diagnosis of ADHD by compensating for deficits in executive functions in treatment-naïve adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord 2014; 21(6): 455-64.
Takeda T, Tsuji Y, Uwatoko T, Kurita H. Reliability and validity of ADHD diagnostic criteria in the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA): a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview. BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15(1): 130.
Fasmer OB, Mjeldheim K, Førland W, et al. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner’s Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16(1): 284.
Snyder SM, Rugino TA, Hornig M, Stein MA. Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician’s ADHD evaluation. Brain Behav 2015; 5(4): e00330.
Makris N, Liang L, Biederman J, et al. Toward defining the neural substrates of ADHD: a controlled structural MRI study in medication-naive adults. J Atten Disord 2015; 19(11): 944-53.
Ahrendts J, Rüsch N, Wilke M, et al. Visual cortex abnormalities in adults with ADHD: a structural MRI study. World J Biol Psychiatry 2011; 12(4): 260-70.
Camilleri N, Makhoul S. ADHD: from childhood into adulthood. Malta Med J 2013; 25(1): 2-7.
Vitiello B. ADHD psychopharmacology across the lifespan. Curr Atten Disord Rep 2009; 1(2): 69-74.
Weiss MD, Weiss JR. A guide to the treatment of adults with ADHD. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65: 27-37.
Rabito-Alcón MF, Correas-Lauffer J. Treatment guidelines for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a critical review. Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2014; 42(6): 315-24.
Hamedi M, Mohammdi M, Ghaleiha A, et al. Bupropion in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a randomized, double-blind study. Acta Med Iran 2014; 52(9): 675-80.
Ng QX. A systematic review of the use of bupropion for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017; 27(2): 112-6.
Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. Lancet 2007; 369(9566): 1047-53.
Wilens TE, Faraone SV, Biederman J, Gunawardene S. Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics 2003; 111(1): 179-85.
Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Does the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with stimulants contribute to drug use/abuse? A 13-year prospective study. Pediatrics 2003; 111(1): 97-109.
Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Spencer T, Wilens TE, Macpherson HA, Faraone SV. Stimulant Therapy and Risk for Subsequent Substance Use Disorders in Male Adults With ADHD: A Naturalistic Controlled 10-Year Follow-Up Study. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165(5): 597-603.
Maneeton N, Maneeton B, Intaprasert S, Woottiluk P. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014; 10: 1439-49.
Acheson A, de Wit H. Bupropion improves attention but does not affect impulsive behavior in healthy young adults. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2008; 16(2): 113.
Cortese S, Kelly C, Chabernaud C, et al. Toward Systems Neuroscience of ADHD: A Meta-Analysis of 55 fMRI Studies. Am J Psychiatry 2012; 169(10): 1038-55.
Nutt D, Fone K, Asherson P, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents in transition to adult services and in adults: Recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol 2007; 21(1): 10-41.
Kooij SJ, Bejerot S, Blackwell A, et al. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD. BMC Psychiatry 2010; 10(1): 67.
Soroko FE, Mehta NB, Maxwell RA, Ferris RM, Schroeder DH. Bupropion hydrochloride ((+/-) alpha-t-butylamino-3-chloropropiophenone HCl): a novel antidepressant agent. J Pharm Pharmacol J Pharm Pharmacol 1977; 29(12): 767-70.
Yu H, Rothman RB, Dersch CM, et al. Uptake and release effects of diethylpropion and its metabolites with biogenic amine transporters. Bioorg Med Chem 2000; 8(12): 2689-92.
Cozzi NV, Sievert MK, Shulgin AT, et al. Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine transporters by β-ketoamphetamines. Eur J Pharmacol 1999; 381(1): 63-9.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy