Organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are mainly used as pesticides to control pests in both agricultural and domestic settings. The widespread and frequent use of OP pesticides has resulted in their presence as residues in environment and food. Due to their high toxicity and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases, it is essential to monitor the residual OP chemicals in the environment and organism. Immunoassays for OP chemicals are now well-established techniques, and they meet the demand for rapid, simple, cost-effective onsite analysis. Haptens, antibodies, and labels are the key components of immunoassays for OP chemicals. This review gives an overview of the design and synthesis of immunizing and coating haptens, coupling of haptens to a carrier, reported antibodies against OP chemicals (e.g., polyclonal, monoclonal and recombinant antibody), and traditional and novel labeling materials for immunoassay signal detection (e.g., radioactive isotope, enzyme, fluorescent compound, and colloidal gold). In addition, we discussed future considerations and opportunities for advancing the development of immunoassays for OP chemicals.
Keywords: Organophosphorus, immunoassay, hapten, antibody, conjugate, pesticides.