Background: The response rate in the pharmacological treatment of depression has been estimated to be around 50%, achieving a remission in symptomatology in only one third of the patients. Suboptimal prescription of antidepressants has been proposed as a significant explanatory factor for this therapeutic inefficacy. The use of pharmacogenetic testing might favor the optimization of pharmacotherapy in emotional disorders. However, its implementation in the clinical routine requires studies which prove its efficacy.Objective: The aim is to explore the clinical effects obtained by means of the personalization of antidepressant treatment derived from the pharmacogenetic profile of the individual. Method: A sample of 291 patients under antidepressant treatment was selected, and these patients were genotyped for the most common polymorphisms of the CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 genes using RT-PCR and TaqMan® technology. 30 of them were subjected to psychoaffective assessment using the HDRS scale before and after a process of individualization of their psychopharmacological treatment in accordance with the genotype obtained. Results: 70% of the individuals treated using the traditional criterion of trial-and-error were not taking the active ingredient most suited to their pharmacogenetic profile. The inclusion of this genetic information in the choice of drug and its dosage entailed a significant, progressive reduction in depressive symptomatology, with an efficacy ratio of 80% and a remission of the pathology in almost 30% of the cases. Conclusion: These results suggest that the prescription of pharmacogenetic profile-based strategies has a positive effect on the therapeutic response to antidepressants.
Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Antidepressant agents, Personalized medicine, Cytochrome P450 enzymes, Depression, Therapeutic efficacy.