Cancer is considered one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Although preventive strategies, early detection, and improved treatment options have been developed, novel targets and therapeutics are still needed. Since concluding that cancer is mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cell, many research groups are now focusing on other means of prevention and therapy via nutrition, epigenetic mechanisms, and non-coding RNAs which have been shown to control gene expression and have many different functions at the cellular level. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing in human cancer, the potential to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets of disease has increased tremendously and led to the identification of many non-coding RNAs that are dysregulated in various cancers. Gene expression and regulation is important in maintaining the homeostasis of normal tissues and cells. Not uncommonly, up- or down-regulation of particular genes are associated with cancer as a result of increased or decreased expression of transcriptional targets. This review focuses on the role of nutrition in cancer and the dysregulation of non-coding RNAs with particular emphasis on long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs in different cancer types.