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Current Cancer Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1568-0096
ISSN (Online): 1873-5576

Review Article

Chemotherapy and Cardiotoxicity in Hematologic Malignancies

Author(s): Antonio Stellitano, Roberta Fedele, Santina Barilla, Antonino Iaria, Carmelo Massimiliano Rao and Massimo Martino*

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2017

Page: [311 - 324] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/1568009617666161121141607

Price: $65

Abstract

Introduction: Antineoplastic agents affect the cardiovascular system, and the incidence of cardiotoxicity is continuously growing in patients with hematologic malignancies and treated with antineoplastic therapy.

Methods: In this mini-review, we analyzed existing literature which evaluates the likelihood of cardiotoxicity related to the main agents employed in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

Results: There is a significant need to optimize the early identification of patients who are at risk of cardiotoxicity. The conventional echocardiographic measurements used to detect cardiac alterations, such as LVEF, fractional shortening, diameters and volumes, allow only a late diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction, which might be already irreversible. The early identification of patients at risk for rapid progression towards irreversible cardiac failure has a primary purpose, the opportunity for them to benefit from early preventive and therapeutic measures. A useful imaging technique that points in this direction detecting subclinical LVD may be the speckle tracking echocardiography, that has demonstrated a previous detection of myocardial contractile dysfunction compared to the traditional left ventricular ejection fraction. In this view, the discovery of new biomarkers to identify patients at a high risk for the development of these complications is another priority.

Conclusion: Cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer drugs is always the outcome of several concurrent factors. It is plausible that an asymptomatic dysfunction precedes clinical events. During this asymptomatic phase, an early treatment prepares the patient for cardiovascular “safety” conditions; on the other hand, a late or missing treatment paves the ground for the development of future cardiac events.

Keywords: Cardiotoxicity, chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase, antineoplastic agents, hematological malignancies, cardio-oncology.

Graphical Abstract

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