Michael addition reaction has been a very classical reaction in the field of organic synthesis. It is widely used to synthesize all kinds of natural products and drugs. Since the beginning of 21st century, people's environmental awareness has been enhanced and the research on green chemistry has been advanced. The Michael addition method with high efficiency, simplicity and greenness has been the goal pursued by organic chemists. Herein, the concepts and mechanisms of Michael addition reaction were discussed, and the applications of Michael addition reaction in the synthesis of natural products and complex compounds with biological activities were summed up.