Background: Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme extensively present in nature. In animals, it is involved in several functions such as respiration, pH homeostasis, salt transport, metabolic reactions, calcification, bone resorption. In recent years, the CA wide distribution, relevance in several physiological processes, involvement in several pathological conditions, as well as sensitivity to chemical pollutants has driven the research on CA based biomarkers.Objective: The review is addressed to analyze the potential applicability of CA as biomarker in a variety of fields, from human health to environmental sciences. Results: The main studies in this field are analyzed and discussed in the present review exploring several areas of interest, from clinic to environmental monitoring. The review also details interesting research patents, which have yielded in the last years in this research field. Conclusion: In conclusion, the review highlights that CA is becoming a promising biomarker in several areas of interest and outlines that the research on CA based biomarkers have opened new perspective for translation of advances in basic science into innovative applications and patents.