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Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Cardiac Biomarkers: Invasive to Non-invasive Assessments

Author(s): Mohd. Khairuddin Md Arshad, Mohamad Faris Bin Mohamad Fathil, Subash C.B. Gopinath, A. Rahim Ruslinda, Mohammad Nuzaihan Md Nor, Hong Yoong Lam and Uda Hashim

Volume 23, Issue 37, 2016

Page: [4270 - 4284] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666161004150857

Price: $65


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major threat to global health, estimated to be the cause 30 % (17.3 million in 2008) of deaths every year, and the number of deaths caused by CVD is expected to increase further, reaching 23.3 million by 2030. Hence, there is a growing demand for simpler sample extraction, rapid screening results, and intervention of the subsequent analysis in emergency units. In this paper, we reviewed CVD biomarkers in blood- and saliva-based specimens. The history of cardiac biomarkers indicates that in the beginning, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was a widely accepted ‘gold standard’ marker due to its high specificity and selectivity. Considering the advantages of salivary-based cardiac biomarkers, we examined correlations between non-invasive (salivary) and invasive (blood) diagnoses, and it was found that C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a better correlation. Despite the low abundance of salivary CRP, several reports displayed the detection limit down to pg/ml using existing technologies. Thus, salivary CRP has the potential to be used for future forefront diagnostics for the early assessment of cardiac risks.

Keywords: Cardiac Troponin, C-reactive Protein, Biomarkers, Saliva, Non-invasive, Invasive, Cardiac Risks.

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