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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

From PK/PD to QSP: Understanding the Dynamic Effect of Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs on Atherosclerosis Progression and Stratified Medicine

Author(s): Cesar Pichardo-Almarza and Vanessa Diaz-Zuccarini

Volume 22, Issue 46, 2016

Page: [6903 - 6910] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160905095402

open access plus


Current computational and mathematical tools are demonstrating the high value of using systems modeling approaches (e.g. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology) to understand the effect of a given compound on the biological and physiological mechanisms related to a specific disease. This review provides a short survey of the evolution of the mathematical approaches used to understand the effect of particular cholesterol-lowering drugs, from pharmaco-kinetic (PK) / pharmaco-dynamic (PD) models, through physiologically base pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) to QSP. These mathematical models introduce more mechanistic information related to the effect of these drugs on atherosclerosis progression and demonstrate how QSP could open new ways for stratified medicine in this field.

Keywords: Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP), cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins, atherosclerosis, mathematical modeling, simulation, personalized medicine.

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