The care of extremely premature neonates with suspected or confirmed diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent challenge for pediatric nurses. It is important for nurses to have adequate knowledge of the normal postnatal changes in cardiovascular and pulmonary function to recognize any adverse symptoms. Nurses caring for these vulnerable neonates must have a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of a PDA in order to assess, plan, and implement patient-centered care. Recognition of characteristic symptoms of PDA in a timely manner is essential for optimal management and outcomes. Understanding the science behind treatment options is also imperative for pediatric nurses to provide the best care and effectively educate parents. Pediatric nurses are a significant resource in managing extremely premature neonates through comprehensive assessment, effective parent education, and high-quality patient-centered care.