There is the growing demand for biofuel and bio based energy due to the depletion of the conventional fossil based resources. Thus, the estimation of the current resources of these alternatives and their future availability become imperative to maintain a sustainable supply in the future. The information presented in this study was collected through an intensive search and consultation of existing databases, which was thereafter corroborated by coordinating with authenticated sources of several national and state level departments, universities, institutes and agencies. The set of information collected and compiled included biomass from three major sectors: forestry, agriculture and bio-wastes, in India. Based on the compilation of this secondary data, the results of the current study provide a general overview on the total biomass resources currently present and the surplus available in the country. This inventory of available biomass was carried out as one of the objectives of an Indo-EU networking initiative SAHYOG, indicated a substantial amount of biomass resource through agricultural residues and municipal solid waste. It also indicated that although India has a considerable amount of area under forest cover, this resource is largely untapped due to the current government policies. The study also showed that India could generate a total of 4506.04 MW biomass based energy and was provided to the national grid by mid-2013, which are due to the implication of the policy frameworks of the Indian government towards alternative energy sources. This study also tries to provide a comparative analysis of Indian bio-fuel policy with those existing in few other countries. Thus, the current study presents an overview, trend and availability of biomass along with the current status of bioenergy in India. This can form the basis to develop a roadmap for the transition towards a bio based economy in the country.