Since most patients with schizophrenia do not respond properly to treatment, scientific effort has been driven to the development of new compounds acting on pharmacological targets beyond the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the aim is to review basic and clinical research findings from studies evaluating the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), an inhibitor of the reuptake and metabolism of anandamide and several other effects on nervous system, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, on the prevention and treatment of psychosis. Animal and human research supports that CBD and sodium nitroprusside might be effective in the prevention and treatment of psychosis in general and especially in schizophrenia. The evidence available to date shows that CBD and sodium nitroprusside act in pathways associated with psychotic symptoms and that they may be important agents in the management of prodromal psychotic states and psychosis. This underscores the relevance of further research on the effects of these agents and others that mediate the activity of the cannabinoid system and of nitric oxide, as well as comparative studies of their antipsychotic effects and those of other antipsychotic drugs currently used to treat schizophrenia.