The Pd-catalyzed P–C couplings of aryl, hetaryl and vinyl derivatives and species with a P(O)H function, typically dialkyl phosphites and secondary phosphine oxides giving rise to phosphonates and phosphine oxides are summarized with special emphasis on the green chemical variations. A great variety of reactions are discussed to demonstrate the different conditions and catalyst systems described. environmentally friendly protocols include the use of a phase transfer catalyst and the microwave technique. The best way is to perform the P–C coupling reactions under Pligand- free and solvent-free conditions.
Keywords: Hirao reaction, P-C coupling, Pd-catalyst, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, P-ligand-free.