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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Recent Development of G-Quadruplex Probes for Cellular Imaging

Author(s): Dik-Lung Ma, Modi Wang, Sheng Lin, Quan-Bin Han and Chung-Hang Leung

Volume 15, Issue 19, 2015

Page: [1957 - 1963] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1568026615666150515150106

Price: $65


The G-quadruplex structure is a non-canonical secondary DNA motif that is built from planar tetrads of guanine residues stabilized by Hoogsteen-type hydrogen bonding. Bioinformatics studies indicate that sequences rich in guanine that are able to form G-quadruplexes are widely distributed throughout the human genome, particularly in telomere and promoter regions of genes. G-quadruplex sequences found in the promoters of human oncogenes, such as k-ras, c-myc and bcl-2 have attracted particular attention as molecular targets for therapeutic intervention due to their potential capability to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, the G-quadruplex structure has been associated with a number of human diseases arising from defective telomeric maintenance. Despite intensive research in this area, however, the actual function of G-quadruplexes in vivo has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, significant efforts have been devoted to the discovery of specific probes for visualizing and distinguishing G-quadruplex structures from other nucleic acid molecules likely to be found in biological environments. This review summarizes recent studies in the development of G-quadruplex probes over the past three years, with a particular emphasize on the detection and imaging of G-quadruplex structures within living cells. Furthermore, the detection and biological relevance of RNA G-quadruplexes is discussed.

Keywords: Cell imaging, G-quadruplex, Probe, DNA.

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