Recent industrial and urban activities have led to elevated concentrations of a wide range of contaminants in water and soil, which affect the health of millions of people worldwide. This review reports some recent advances in the use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINPs) for environmental remediation. Various solid materials such as carbon, silica, oxides, and clay minerals, as well as flexible materials such as polymer, membranes and nanofibers have been used to stabilize or support the formation of ZVINPs. The used supporting materials are able to significantly improve the stability of the ZVINPs, to improve the accessibility of ZVINPs to hydrophobic organic pollutants, and to eliminate the oxidation of Fe0. Some of the key developments in the formation of various ZVINP-based composite materials for the remediation of dyeing wastewater, chlorinated organic compounds, heavy metal irons, etc. will be introduced and discussed in detail.