Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in various neurological disorders (NDs) of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia and autism. If dysregulated miRNAs are identified in patients suffering from NDs, this may serve as a biomarker for the earlier diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. Identifying the role of miRNAs in normal cellular processes and understanding how dysregulated miRNA expression is responsible for their neurological effects is also critical in the development of new therapeutic strategies for NDs. miRNAs hold great promise from a therapeutic point of view especially if it can be proved that a single miRNA has the ability to influence several target genes, making it possible for the researchers to potentially modify a whole disease phenotype by modulating a single miRNA molecule. Hence, better understanding of the mechanisms by which miRNA play a role in the pathogenesis of NDs may provide novel targets to scientists and researchers for innovative therapies.