Myocardial infarction results in loss of cardiac muscle and deficiency in cardiac performance. Likewise, peripheral artery disease can result in critical limb ischemia leading to reduced mobility, non-healing ulcers, gangrene and amputation. Both of these common conditions diminish quality of life and enhance risk of mortality. Successful advances in treatment have led to more people surviving incidences of myocardial infarction or living with peripheral artery disease. However, the current treatments are inadequate in repairing ischemic tissue. Over the last 5 years, a vast number of patents have been submitted concerning the use of stem cells, which correlates with the exponential growth in stem cell publications. Exploiting stem cell therapy offers a real potential in replacing ischemic tissue with functional cells. In this paper, we review recent patents concerning stem cell therapy that have the potential to provide or potentiate novel treatment for ischemic cardiovascular disease. In addition, we evaluate the promise of the inventions by describing some clinical trials that are currently taking place, as well as considering how current research on ischemic cardiovascular disease may change the patent landscape in the future.