Hypertension, diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and metabolic syndrome associated with obesity are rapidly growing public health problems. Sympathetic nerve activation is well documented in hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, hypertension and diabetes are determined by genetic background and environmental factors. Reduced energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate are predictive of weight gain, and the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating energy balance through thermogenesis. The thermogenic effects of sympathetic nervous system in obesity have been mainly mediated via the β2 and β3-adrenergic receptors in humans. Further, β2- adrenoceptors importantly influence vascular reactivity and may regulate blood pressure. Genetic polymorphisms of the &bgr;-adrenoceptor gene have been shown to alter the function of several adrenoceptor subtype and thus to modify the response to catecholamine. Among β2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms, Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile are considered the most functionally important. β2-adrenoceptor genes have been studied in relation to hypertension. Genetic variations in the β3-adrenoceptor, such as the Try64Arg variant, are also associated with both obesity and hypertension. This review is an update of several versions published of the relationships between adrenoceptor polymorphisms and hypertension, diabetes and obesiy based on the my own review on the relationship with obesity in 2011 in “Journal of Obesity” , and another of my own reviews on the relationships with hypertension in 2010 in “International journal of Hypertension” , with 37 articles provided by the “PubMed” with the keywords of “adrenoceptor polymorphisms, obesity, hypertension and diabetes” searched on December 2013. However, the relationships of the polymorphisms of β2- and β3-adrenoceptor genes with sympathetic nervous system activity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome have been still discordant, it might be related to the ethnicity, gender, severeity of obesity, duration of hypertension or obesity, etc (refer the “Possible confounding variable affecting the relationships” section and Table 4).
Therefore, this review may not be so much different from the previous ones, but, of importance, currently most investigations have shown that the β-adrenoceptor polymorphisms accompanying sympathetic nervous activity contribute to the onset and maintenance of hypertension, diabetes and obesity.
Keywords: Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms, beta3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, sympathetic nervous system activity.