Despite its apparent static condition, the skeleton undergoes a permanent process of remodeling mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The activity of these cells is regulated by a plethora of factors, ranging from mechanical stress to the effects of hormones to the immune system. One well-studied regulatory system involves the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through a network whose main regulatory components include ionized calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and active vitamin D. This system establishes the link between bone and kidney, as one of the kidneys endocrine functions is the activation of vitamin D, while electrolyte homeostasis is one of its excretory functions. Impaired renal function leads to disturbances in this regulatory system, resulting in the complex syndrome of renal osteodystrophy that affects the majority of patients with chronic renal failure. This review summarizes the current understanding of bone physiology on a molecular level, examines some of the pathological pathways related to renal disease, and concludes with an outlook on how the emerging field of systems biology may contribute to a more dynamic and quantitative understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of renal bone disease.