Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a small subset of primitive precursors that generate and maintain the main phenotypes of the nervous system. Their ability to undergo long-term proliferation and neural differentiation endows them with great potential in regenerative medicine. Therefore, the mechanisms by which NSCs are regulated have been widely explored to improve their therapeutic efficacy in treating neurologic disorders. Recent progress has highlighted the significance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of NSC behavior. Thus, to sketch out a comprehensive image of the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in NSCs, we here summarize existing evidence of the regulatory roles of diversified miRNAs in the proliferation and neural differentiation of NSCs during embryonic neurodevelopment and adult brain maintenance.