Energy homeostasis is regulated by endocrine factors. The concentration of relaxin-3 in serum is related to body mass index. However, relaxin-3 is found only in the brain and testis. In this study, we examined the expression of relaxin- 3 in adipose tissue and its effects on adipogenesis. The expression of relaxin-3 was determined using RT-PCR, a relaxin- 3 C-peptide-specific radioimmunoassay, specifically in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells rather than adipocytes. The release of C-peptide was regulated by glucose concentration in the SVF cells. However, the differentiated adipocytes did not express relaxin-3. In glucose perfusion experiments, C-peptide was released in response to high glucose concentrations in the mesenteric perfusate, opposite to insulin release. Additionally, GPCR135 mRNA was expressed in adipocytes. Relaxin-3 increased triglycerides in adipocytes and decreased lipase activity. The present study showed that relaxin-3 is secreted from SVF cells and that it regulates lipid accumulation in adipocytes.