Many molecular imaging probes have been developed in recent years that hold great promise for both diagnostic and therapeutic functions in urogynecologic disease. Historically, optical probe designs were based on either endogenous or exogenous fluorophores. More recently, organic fluorophore probes have been engineered to target specific tissues and emit fluorescence only upon binding to targets. Several different photochemical mechanisms of activation exist. This review presents a discussion of the history and development of molecular imaging probe designs and provides an overview of successful preclinical and clinical models employing molecular probes for in vivo imaging of urogynecologic cancers.
Keywords: Gynecologic cancer, molecular imaging, near infrared, urologic cancer.