Sarcomas are a class of tumors defined by their mesenchymal origin that comprise very different neoplasms. Although some sarcomas harbor pathogenomic molecular alterations (i.e. specific balanced translocations and their associated chimeric fusion genes), others still lack an ultimate diagnostic tool, which could be of great interest as in some cases different sarcomas share a similar clinical manifestation. High throughput tools are contributing new ways to molecularly delineate the boundaries of each sarcoma subtype. Moreover, they are also shedding light into other research subjects of immediate concern: (i) the elucidation of the molecular targets of chimeric fusion proteins and their interactome; (ii) the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets; and (iii) the delineation of the response to therapeutic agents. Here we review the application of proteomics approaches to sarcomas, with special emphasis in Ewing sarcoma. Proteomics strategies offer the focus, the analytical potential, and the high throughput capabilities to decipher the hidden agenda of the biology of sarcomas, a knowledge that will surely be the subject of future patents intended to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
Keywords: 2-DE, Cancer, cell signaling, chimeric fusion protein, chromosomal translocation, diagnostic tools, DIGE, Ewing sarcoma, EWS-FLI1, MALDI-ToF, mass spectrometry, molecular targets, oncogene, protein microarrays, proteomics, sarcomas, sarcomagenesis, targets of therapy.