The common carotid artery (CCA) supplies intra- and extra-cranial vascular beds. An area in the medulla controlling CCA blood flow is defined as the dorsal facial area (DFA) by Kuo et al. in 1987. In the DFA, presynaptic nitrergic and/or glutamatergic fibers innervate preganglionic nitrergic and/or cholinergic neurons which give rise to the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic 7th and 9th cranial nerves. Released glutamate from presynaptic nitrergic and/or glutamatergic fibers can activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- propionic acid (AMPA) receptors on preganglionic nitrergic and/or cholinergic neurons. By modulating this glutamate release, several neurochemicals including serotonin, arginine, nitric oxide, nicotine, choline and ATP in the DFA regulate CCA blood flow. Understanding the neurochemical regulatory mechanisms can provide important insights of the physiological roles of the DFA, and may help develop therapeutic strategies for diseases involving CCA blood flow, such as migraine, hypertensive disease, Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral ischemic stroke.