Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic as well as an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the glandular epithelial tissue. SS patients have been reported to be at highest risk of developing lymphoproliferative neoplasms, when compared with patients with other rheumatoid diseases. Factors such as cytokine stimulation, environmental factors, viral infection and genetic events as well as vitamin deficiency may contribute to the development of lymphoma. Over the past few decades, numerous efforts have been made to assess the relationship between lymphoma and SS. These include epidemiological surveys, molecular biologic assessments of clonality and well-linked register cohort studies evaluating the predictive value of clinical, laboratory and histological findings. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and factors predictive of lymphoma development in pSS patients remain to be defined. This review summarizes updated knowledge on the incidence of and risk factors for lymphoma development in pSS patients, as well as discussing the most recent findings on the development and treatment of lymphoma in pSS patients and the possible mechanism of lymphoma development.