The incidence of allergic diseases over the past few decades has shown a significant increase. Many epidemiological studies have shown that dietary factors are involved in the occurrence and development of allergic diseases, especially in early childhood. Hypotheses on the occurrence of a variety of allergic diseases (immunological mechanism) have provided a theoretical basis for dietary interventions for allergic diseases. However, currently, there are still inconsistencies among results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Epidemiological and immunological studies have been inconsistent, and in some cases, the results even directly contradict each other. In certain populations, dietary interventions have shown promising signs. Due to the complexity of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, the issue of whether dietary interventions can prevent the development and progression of allergic disease requires collaborative work among clinicians, epidemiologists, immunologists, and geneticists. Ideally, this will identify population subgroups that would benefit the most from dietary intervention. The individuals in those populations could then be screened. These results may facilitate the development of individualized dietary interventions.