Although sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) can be initially established after resuscitation in children, many of the children do not survive to discharge because they developped a post cardiac arrest syndrome.
The post-cardiac arrest syndrome includes systemic ischaemia/reperfusion response, post-cardiac arrest brain injury, postcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, and persistent precipitating pathology. The main cause of death after ROSC in children is brain injury.
Physiopathology and management are reviewed in regards of pediatric specificities. Management according to ABCDE includes airway and ventilation management, oxygen therapy, hemodynamic management with early goal directed therapy and protection of the brain against secondary injury by therapeutic hypothermia, management of seizures and control of glycemia.