The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of biomarkers in lung cancer. Thus, serum levels of tumor markers, including Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and Cyfra 21-1 were evaluated competitively in benign and malignant lung diseases. Serum samples of 469 consecutive patients were investigated in two different groups. Group 1(NSE, ProGRP) contained 90 cases of benign lung diseases and 140 patients with lung cancer, including 50 cases of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 90 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Group 2 (Cyfra 21-1) enrolled 110 cases of benign lung disorders and 129 patients with lung malignancy, containing 30 cases of SCLC and 99 cases of NSCLC. Results of group 2 were compared to a control group of 80 healthy individuals. Results demonstrated statistically significant difference between benign and malignant lung diseases using tumor markers mentioned above. Further, data analysis of evaluated tumor markers in small cell lung cancer revealed, that NSE and ProGRP are highly significant tumor markers in this histological subtype. Regarding to NSCLC, Cyfra 21-1 proved to be the marker of choice in patients with large cell lung cancer. The paper also outlines some recent patents.
Keywords: Benign lung diseases, Cyfra 21-1, non-small cell lung cancer, NSE, ProGRP, small cell lung cancer, tumor markers.