Seabuckthorn is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components beneficial for human health. Fruit juice is rich in sugar, organic acids, amino acids, essential fatty acids, phytosterol, flavonoids, vitamins and mineral elements. There are 24 minerals and 18 kinds of free amino acids in seabuckthorn juice. The total quantity of phytosterol in seabuckhtorn exceeds soybean oil by 4-20 times. Seabuckthorn seed is a source of valuable oil characterized by high oleic acid content and one to one ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The oil absorbs ultraviolet light and promotes healthy skin. The leaves contain many nutrients and bioactive substances such as carotenoids, free and esterified sterols, triterpenols, and isoprenols. Seabuckthorn has been used in traditional system of medicine for centuries. Beneficial effects of seabuckthorn on human health have been extensively investigated and substantiated by studies, suggesting a great potential of the plant for maintaining and promoting human health. Recent research has supported and extended the traditional uses of the plant for treatment of various diseases. The unique and valuable characteristics of seabuckthorn shrub serve as a storehouse for researchers in the field of biotechnology, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and environmental sciences. Traditional usage coupled with commercial value and modern scientific research has immense scope to benefit the modern society from the lesser known shrub.