For the past century, capture and detection of biospecies such as cells, DNA, and biomarkers at low concentration has been extensively studied by chemists, physicists, and engineers. Various methods including computational modeling, microfluidics, electrical, magnetic, and optical manipulation, have been proposed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in biospecies capture and detection at low concentration. Techniques applied in detection and capture of cells, DNA and biomarkers at low concentration are introduced first. Furthermore, concentrating of microparticles at low concentration is reviewed as a pre-concentration step and enhancement process for biospecies capture and detection. Finally, the applications of biospecies capture and detection in biochemistry analysis and medical diagnosis are discussed.
Keywords: Biospecies, Capture, Concentrating, Detection, Biosensing, Low concentration, Microparticles, pre-concentration stage, pathogenesis, immobilize cells, immersed continuum model, leukocyte, PDMS, Dielectrophoresis, computational fluid dynamics, microelectromagnetic matrix