Pouchitis is the most common complication of Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The diagnosis of pouchitis requires the presence of symptoms, together with characteristic endoscopic and histological abnormalities. The exact cause of pouchitis is not known. Whereas ‘acute’ pouchitis can be treated rapidly and successfully in the majority of patients, ‘‘refractory’’ and ‘chronic pouchitis’’ remain therapeutic challenges to patients and physicians.Metronidazole and Ciprofloxacin budesonide enemas and oral probiotic therapy with VSL#3 all appear to be effective therapies for acute and/or chronic pouchitis. The medical therapy of pouchitis remains largely empiric, and additional multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-con- trolled, dose-ranging trials are needed. In future trials, treatment indications such as active acute or chronic pouchitis and maintenance of remission for acute or chronic pouchitis should be clearly defined.