Both increases in the basal cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) and [Ca2+]cyt transients play a major role in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and division. Calcium influx and release from endoplasmic reticulum are the major routes involved in the variations in [Ca2+]cyt and past studies have clearly shown that calcium influx controls cell growth and proliferation in several cell types. Furthermore, various studies in the past thirty years have demonstrated that calcium channel expression levels, as well as cell specific expression, were determinant in these physiological processes. Cell proliferation is directly linked to cell cycle progression, and again, it became evident that calcium channel expression interferes here. It is also clear that calcium influx and cell proliferation relationship can be uncoupled in transformed and cancer cells, resulting in an external calcium-independent proliferation. Other divalent cations such as iron and zinc involved in cell proliferation permeating some calcium channels may interfere in this cellular process. This patent review is focused on transient receptor potential and ORAI channels, and, as calcium influx regulates several other transduction pathways, we assume that specific signalization complexes are needed to trigger activation of proliferation and cell division in mammalian cells.