Mitochondria are essential for various biological processes including cellular energy production. The oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that mitochondria play key roles in aging by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which indiscriminately damage macromolecules and lead to an age-dependent decline in biological function. However, recent studies show that increased levels of ROS or inhibition of mitochondrial function can actually delay aging and increase lifespan. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings regarding the role of mitochondria in organismal aging processes. We will discuss how mitochondria contribute to evolutionarily conserved longevity pathways, including mild inhibition of respiration, dietary restriction, and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling.