Since antiquity, humans have used body fluids like saliva, urine and sweat for the diagnosis of diseases. The amount, color and smell of body fluids are still used in many traditional medical practices to evaluate an illness and make a diagnosis. The development and application of analytical methods for the detailed analysis of body fluids has led to the discovery of numerous disease biomarkers. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and multivariate statistical techniques have been incorporated into a multidisciplinary approach to profile changes in small molecules associated with the onset and progression of human diseases. The goal of these efforts is to identify metabolites that are uniquely correlated with a specific human disease in order to accurately diagnose and treat the malady. In this review we will discuss recent developments in sample preparation, experimental techniques, the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the chemometric tools used to search for biomarkers of human diseases using NMR.