Accelerated atherosclerosis and microvascular complications are perhaps the leading cause of coronary heart disease, blindness and renal failure, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Several mechanisms including endothelial cell damage, platelet activation and aggregation, hypercoagulability, and impaired fibrinolysis are involved in the pathogenesis of thrombogenic diathesis in diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. A recent clinical study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial- Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT-EDIC) Research, has revealed that the reduction in the risk of progressive retinopathy and nephropathy resulting from intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes persist for at least several years, despite increasing hyperglycemia. In addition, intensive therapy during the DCCT also reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by about 50 % in type 1 diabetic patients 11 years after the end of the trial. These clinical studies strongly suggest that so-called ‘hyperglycemic memory’ causes chronic abnormalities in diabetic vessels that are not easily reversed, even by subsequent, relatively good control of blood glucose. Among various biochemical pathways implicated in diabetic vascular complications, the process of formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their mode of action are most compatible with the theory ‘hyperglycemic memory’. In this review, we discuss the role of AGEs in thrombogenic abnormalities in diabetes, especially focusing on the deleterious effects of these macroproteins on endothelial cell function, platelet activation and aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems.