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Current Enzyme Inhibition


ISSN (Print): 1573-4080
ISSN (Online): 1875-6662

Beyond Thymidylate Synthase and Dihydrofolate Reductase: Impact of Non-coding microRNAs in Anticancer Chemoresistance

Author(s): Jingfang Ju

Volume 8, Issue 2, 2012

Page: [118 - 123] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/157340812800793228

Price: $65


Chemoresistance is one of the major reasons for the failure of anticancer chemotherapy in treating advanced stage cancer. The mechanism of chemoresistance to fluoropyrimidines and antifolates has been extensively investigated in the past 40 years. It has been well established that thymidylate synthase (TYMS, TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are two major targets for fluoropyrimidines and antifolates, respectively. The regulatory mechanism of TS and DHFR expression is rather complex involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational regulations. Our recent understanding of the chemoresistance mechanism has been extended beyond the simple one target/drug view. In this review, we will focus on the recent advancement of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in contributing to the regulations of TS and DHFR expression, and to the chemoresistance mechanism of fluoropyrimidines and antifolates.

Keywords: Translational control, microRNA, thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, chemoresistance, lymphocytic leukemia, apoptosis, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

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