Introduction: Only a minority of schizophrenia patients shows criminal behavior, but in comparison with the general population, they are at increased risk of incurring in criminal acts. The objectives of this study are, by reviewing the literature, to conclude about the relationship between crime and schizophrenia and explain the mediators of this association. A second aim is to discuss the prevention of criminality in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Searches involved three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF KNOWLEDGE) and other selected literature in psychiatry. Results: There is an increased prevalence of crime among schizophrenia patients compared with the general population. The explanation for these criminal acts is not unique; however, it contains several variables that are often intertwined and operate before, during, and after the active stage of the disorder. Conclusions: The prevention of the occurrence or recurrence of the criminal act must be specific to the patient, adapting to the more substantial etiological factors, with a reminder that in most cases, more than one factor is involved. Substance abuse, the vulnerabilities of the individual personality, and the social context, need, if not on equal priority with controlling symptoms, be at least a relevant part of the management process.
Keywords: Aggression, Epidemiology, Psychosis, Rehabilitation, Schizophrenia, Violence, genetic endophenotype, KIAA0319, biological markers, Mental Disorders, Parkinson's disease, schizoaffective disorder, aMMN, short-duration deviants, perfectly passive state