Pharmaceutical development and therapeutic delivery as they pertain to nanomedicine predominantly involve the use of nanometer-sized (1-100nm) structures or complexes comprised of two or more constituents whose goal is to deliver a specific therapeutic to a targeted site for localized treatment. This illustrates one of the predominant underlying paradigms in nanomedicine: increased efficacy through targeted therapeutic delivery. With the advent of nanobiotechnology the precisely targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals and therapeutic agents can be achieved through a myriad of approaches which can be delineated by the level of bio-activity beginning with the nano-scale dispersion of pharmaceuticals. The primary constituent of nano-scale medicinal complexes is the pharmaceutical itself with the other contributing as a uni-functional “vehicle” for transport; a bi-functional natural or synthetic biodegradable vesicle or “shell” for encapsulation and timed release; or multi-functional components which include surface modification of said vesicle/shells for target- specific binding and/or conjugated with a contrast or fluorescent agent for imaging and/or tracking of drug mobility. This review will focus on cutting-edge nanostructured drug delivery systems for various biomedical applications. In addition, nanobiotechnology and its role in mediating tissue regeneration will be introduced. Recent awarded patents and their role in nanotechnology and nanomedicine development will be discussed.
Keywords: Cancer, cells, cold plasma, drug, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, nanostructure, patent, pharmaceuticals, quantum dots, sustained delivery, targeted delivery, therapeutic delivery, tissue engineering